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A portion of an image from Rhijne, Willem Ten, Dissertatio De arthritide: mantissa schematica, 1683. From the collection of the Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine.
Maps of the body
Anatomy atlases in the Wangensteen Historical Library aid U researchers and teachers from a range of disciplines
By Lucy Vilankulu
January 22, 2008
Maps of the same piece of land look very different according to the purpose of the mapmaker. A tract of land might yield topographical maps, water table maps, vegetation, or property lines. Maps are also shaped by mapmakers' ideals and philosophies; compare, for example, an 1862 map of the Minnesota River created by the Dakota people, to a map of the same area created by settlers or the U.S. government. Map-making, it seems, has not always been an objective science. So, too, for anatomical atlases, which over the centuries have ranged from cartoon-like depictions of unmoored organs floating in the sea of a human body to Gunther Von Hagens' graphic anatomical renderings of preserved human bodies in the controversial Body Worlds exhibition. For some early anatomists, the purpose of an anatomical atlas was medical-physicians simply needed a better idea of how organs and bodily systems looked and operated. For some, the purpose was artistic, and for others, anatomizing bodies underscored a moral tale about the wages of sin: subjects in anatomy atlases were often executed criminals. Anatomization was the ultimate corporal punishment, pursuing the miscreant even beyond death. The University of Minnesota's Owen H. Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine has in its collection hundreds of anatomical atlases dating from the 1400s to the 20th century. As the work of University of Minnesota researchers shows, the collection reveals not only medical ideas about the body, but also the philosophies of the anatomists and the times they lived in. John Eyler, a professor in the University's history of medicine department, has a background in the history of infectious diseases and public health. He often uses the Wangensteen's collection of anatomical atlases when he teaches undergraduate history of science courses and in his anatomy lectures for medical students. "With undergrads, you're essentially teaching general Western Civilization," said Eyler. "You can't take health care and healthcare institutions out of the cultural and social matrix from which these institutions develop. We can't assume that people read Latin or Greek or read paleography. Using anatomy illustrations is a way of making the original [medical] texts more universal and accessible."
In the end, teaching and researching anatomical maps is a bit like teaching Latin or ancient Greek--languages that are not in use today, but that give us priceless insights into the roots of the words, meanings and ideas that go on shaping us.Eyler uses historical anatomical atlases in his teaching for two reasons. On the one hand there is the centuries-long history of medicine. "One of the things we're trying to impress on [medical students] is that their profession, medicine, has a long tradition. Some of the problems they will encounter have been encountered before. " There is also what Eyler calls the "golly, gee whiz" aspect of the old atlases. "The students who have been trying their hand at dissection for the first time, trying to make some illustrations of what they're seeing, can appreciate the process necessary to produce some of those wonderful plates. We also tell them about when these plates were designed and let them handle the materials, and some of them are just amazed by the antiquity of it and that they're engaging in a process that has very long roots." Richard Leppert, professor of cultural studies and comparative literature at the University of Minnesota, has worked with and written about anatomical atlases in the Wangensteen collection. His 1996 book Art and the Committed Eye: The Cultural Functions of Imagery includes a long chapter on representations of the human body in anatomical atlases. "I was interested in the relationship between the anatomical atlases in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries and developments in the visual arts," said Leppert. "[I am interested in] how those atlases show shifting ideas, not so much about how to represent human bodies in the medical sciences, but rather how artists began to re-imagine how they thought about the human body in relation to human beings." Early anatomy illustrations, most famously in the case of Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica, were extremely concerned with art and aesthetic issues. Cadavers and skeletons were posed in the attitudes and backgrounds of typical portraiture of the times, with textual explanations provided separately so as not to detract from the artistry of the illustration. Within a few hundred years, however, this representation would change dramatically. "If you look at the Albinus elephant folio," Leppert says, "you see on one plate these very elegant, finished, highly detailed engravings set in some kind of a landscape that provides a story, and then on the opposite page the only thing that's left is the human figure and it's been reduced to a line drawing with all the bones labeled." Leppert suggests that this change reflects a break between art and science that points to the increasing secularization of western society combined with rapid advancement in the sciences. "The issue of aesthetics in visual representation was far less important than perceived visual accuracy. The greater the scientific interest in anatomy as such, illustrating the human body with a wholly extraneous narrative becomes increasingly irrelevant." In the end, teaching and researching anatomical maps is a bit like teaching Latin or ancient Greek--languages that are not in use today, but that give us priceless insights into the roots of the words, meanings and ideas that go on shaping us. "After all," Eyler says, "one of the things we're trying to describe and help people to analyze is how knowledge changes."
For more information on the Owen H. Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine, which is located on the fifth floor of Diehl Hall on the Twin Cities campus in Minneapolis, visit Wangensteen Library.
Edited from Continuum, a publication by University Libraries.